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"New Indian" (American Indian Movement), 1977

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Courtesy of National Archives, "New Indian," 1977


The American Indian Movement (AIM) began on July 11, 1968, in Minnesota to combat police brutality. Later AIM evolved into a goal of uniting all indigenous people to uplift communities, pride and sovereignty. A major protest for the organization came in 1972 with the Trail of Broken Treaties, which was a march from San Francisco to Washington with a desire to discuss grievances. When the administration failed to even speak with protesters they took over the Bureau of Indian Affairs which led the group to be labeled as extremists by the FBI. This protest was followed by the Wounded Knee Occupation in 1973. Philip Deere, featured in the video, was a spiritual leader within the organization. 

Source-Dependent Questions

  • Describe using evidence the demands of Philip Deere. Why did he make a case for the need to protest to obtain these rights? How did this connect to statements made in the memo from the Johnson administration?
  • Consider the question posed by the woman in the video. What point was she trying to make with this question?

Citation Information 

"New Indian," 1977. Courtesy of National Archives